Informative guide to prevent disease by the COVID-19 virus


General advices for daily life in pandemic situation COVID-19 (in Spain).

“The aim is to have the correct and useful information spreading faster tan coronavirus infection “.

COVID-19: is the disease that causes the type of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)  COronaVIrus Disease, discovered in 2019.

Life has changed us. Many of these exceptional measures will have to be done on a daily basis.

We will have to educate ourselves and educate our own. Especially to children.

Informative guide to prevent disease by the COVID-19 virus 1

How Does Coronavirus Spread?

  • Droplets: less than 2 meters from the infected when the contaminated particles of a person are deposited in mucosa such as the mouth, nose and eyes, which are not protected.
  • Airborne: 4 meters. So far, the WHO has no evidence that it is transmitted by the outside air we breathe. It could be transmitted in an environment “loaded” with particles of the coronavirus (air that has the virus floating in it), since there are many contaminated people living in it or in the hospital areas where infected patients are, when the healthcare provider must perform special maneuvers, so they must work very protected .
  • Surfaces: when we touch and drag coronavirus particles deposited on contaminated surfaces and then move them to the mucous membranes like the mouth, nose and eyes, which are not protected.

We must act as individuals and as a family or collective group and we must also act as a employed in our job enviroment.

The main objectives are:

  • PROTECT the weakest people against the COVID-19 disease
  • AVOID contagion between people (droplets/airborne)
  • DISINFECT contact surfaces to avoid contagion

First! You have to make a family plan.

a) Identify family members at risk.

Today, graphically we can stratify our family members according to the risk of suffering major clinical complications based on a traffic light (4-lights)
They are based on published epidemiological data, but this does not mean that a person who is not “at risk” cannot suffer a clinical complication.

Informative guide to prevent disease by the COVID-19 virus 3

 With people in red or in orange we would have, these days, to push security measures to the limit.

b) People in red or orange. Act with restrictive contact measures, such as:

  • Safety distance of 2 meters.
  • Wear mask.
  • Si las personas son dependientes, para atenderlos deberemos lavarnos las manos con agua y jabón (30-40 segundos), lavar entre los dedo If people are dependent, to attend to them we must wash our hands with soap and water, lasting (30-40 seconds). Remember that we must wash our hands also between the fingers.
  • People in red/orange must have their own crockery, towells, handkerchief and napkin.
  • If possible, do not go outside to buy. If there is no other choice, use a mask and disposable gloves.

Second! You have to carry out an individual routine.

a) Mask and gloves.

Given the need to ration the use of masks. Its priority and necessary use is aimed at:

  • Health personnel.
  • Personnel of state security forces that care for people.
  • Workers exposed to the public.
  • If two people are traveling inside a vehicle (alarm state).
  • Patients who go to hospital services.
  • People with flu symptoms or symptoms compatible with COVID-19 (whether they are catarrhal or not) who live with others.
  • Patients diagnosed with COVID-19 who live with others.
  • Caregivers of patients suspected of having COVID-19 or patients in red or orange.

Its use is recommended in the following situations:

  • When going to places where it is expected that there will be a crowded group of people (supermarket).
  • To interact with other people who are exposed to the public (dispatching clients).
  • Closed community areas (elevator).
  • Public transport.

The Protection that wearing a mask gives us can be summed up by preventing our hand from going to our face the great number of times that we accidentally touch ourselves.

The protection we provide to others when wearing a mask is to “stop” our secretions as much as possible.

The “dangers of wearing a mask”:

  • It should not be used more than 2-3 days in a row (inside it will be wet with our secretions).
  • Masks should never be exchanged.
  • Its use could give us “false security” we cannot touch the mask with our hands on the outside.
  • They cannot be used on both sides, do not flip.
  • Homemade mask, is the least safe for an infected patient (they should not be used in this situation).

Masks are classified according to “Filtering face piece” (FFP), their filtering capacity.

  • FFP 3: 98% minimum filtration efficiency, 2% leakage to the outside. It is effective against bacteria, viruses and fungal spores. For high risk activities.
  • FFP 2: 92% minimum filtration efficiency, 8% leakage to the outside. It prevents us from inhaling toxic fluids from dust, aerosols, and fumes. For activities with low or moderate risk.
  • FFP 1: “Surgical mask” 78% minimum filtration efficiency, 22% leakage to the outside. Protects from non-toxic and non-fibrogenic residues from dust or aerosols. It prevents inhaling these and annoying odors.

The goal: the higher the risk of exposure, the better type of mask.

The WHO recommends for the correct use of a mask:

  1. Before putting on a mask, we have to wash our hands with an alcohol-based disinfectant or soap and wáter.
  2. Cover the mouth and nose with the mask, to make sure there are no gaps between your face and the mask.
  3. Avoid touching the mask while wearing; if we touch it outside, we have to wash our hands with an alcohol-based disinfectant or with soap and wáter.
  4. Change mask as soon as it is wet and do not reuse single-use ones.
  5. To remove the mask: remove it from behind (do not touch the front of the mask); immediately throw it in a closed container; and wash your hands with an alcohol-based disinfectant or soap and wáter.

About the use of gloves.

There are many materials, the most recommended are vinyl or nitrile, since they are not usually allergenic, a phenomenon that can occur with latex gloves.

They do not need to be sterile.

Its use is necessary:

  • For caring a COVID-19 patient and the disinfection of their areas of use. For the handling and removal of your waste.
  • For handling products in a supermarket.
  • For contact with people in red.
  • For contact with community surfaces.

The mainly thing in the use of gloves is knowing how to take them off without contaminating us.

Informative guide to prevent disease by the COVID-19 virus 5
Stretch from the dirty area
Informative guide to prevent disease by the COVID-19 virus 7
Flip the glove by turning it inside out.
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Put your fingers under the glove to avoid touching the contaminated area.

b) At home: disinfection and understanding eachother.

  • Declare a “dirty area” and a “clean area” in the home. Street shoes and possibly contaminated clothing will remain in the dirty area (hall).
  • If we live with dependent people (red), to attend to them we must wash our hands with soap and water (30-40 seconds), wash between the fingers.

· Wash your hands (WHO):

  • Before handling cooked or ready-to-eat food.
  • Before and after handling or preparing raw food.
  • After handling packaged or packaged food.
  • After handling waste.
  • After cleaning tasks.
  • Before and after using the bathroom.
  • After blowing your nose, sneezing, or coughing.
  • Before and after eating or drinking.
  • After handling money, coins, plastics, or metal objects.

It is also useful:

  • Separate crockery, cutlery and towels for people in red or orange. If we live together.
  • If possible, people in red or orange, do not go outside to buy.
  • Containers purchased from supermarkets, it is advisable to clean them with cloth and diluted bleach when you get home, “in the dirty area”.
  • When cooking, avoid “cross contamination” between cooked and uncooked food.
  • The 4 key steps in food safety are: cleaning, separating, cooking and cooling.
  • Avoid drinking directly from cans or glass bottles.
  • Do not eat (gum) in front of vulnerable people. It can increase the emission of particles. And needless to say, avoid sneezing. If it is going to happen, sneeze covering us with a handkerchief or putting the mouth in the flexion of the elbow.
  • Disinfect surfaces such as cell phones, plastic cards, keys or coins.
  • Do not share mobile or electronic tablets. Disinfect them before that, if necessary share them.

About rings and bracelets: some experts have been affirming that it is advisable not to wear them, since handwashing can be deficient in the areas of the fingers where they are, leaving remains without rinsing or areas where soap does not arrive. It is very important to wash the regions between the fingers well.

Informative guide to prevent disease by the COVID-19 virus 11


  • We know that household hygiene and cleaning with bleach and detergent is necessary, as usual. In this case, it is advisable to double the cleaning frequency.
  • The biocidal disinfectant recommended for surfaces is bleach, since its effectiveness is very great. Bleach from supermarket have a concentration of 0.07%.
  • You can prepare a container with bleach / detergent and water, with the ratio of one liter of water and a little cup of coffee plenty of bleach.
  • It is also necessary to disinfect metal objects such as keys or coins, containers, plasticized, which you think have also been manipulated before by other people. With bleach diluted only with water. Alcohol can also be used 70-96º
  • ATTENTION: do not mix bleach with vinegar, ammonia or salfuman. Neither the previous products among them, due to its high toxic power.

·Home ventilation.

The purpose of ventilation of closed spaces is to maintain good indoor air quality.

Overcrowding and the lack of “fresh air” are risk factors in the spread of the coronavirus.

Refrain from using mechanical ventilation in confined spaces (air conditioning) if you are not sure that good maintenance and recent disinfection have been carried out.

According to research, the coronavirus spreads better in a cold and dry environment than in a wet one.

c) Away from home: caution and civism.

· Community surface: any surface outside the home where we have the certainty that more than one person has touched. The virus can remain there for a while.

· We have the obligation to disinfect all our community surfaces (Patios, landings of the building, etc. …) As we have seen our millitary forces and municipal disinfection teams do. It also depends on us.

· We have to remain in our homes according to the orders of the public authorities. “Stay at home”.

-Distance between people at least 2 meters.

· Go to the supermarket with gloves (request them at the establishment) and a mask (as far as possible) and keep the safety distance from other customers.

· Inside an automobile.

  • If your vehicle is for shared use with several drivers, previously clean the contact surface with 96ºC alcohol. Clean the seat belts.
  • The use of a vehicle by two people must be adjusted to the requirements of the current alarm state. The members must be placed diagonally and with a mask.
  • Avoid eating inside the vehicle. Do not drink directly from purchased cans or bottles. It is advisable to bring 96ºC alcohol or hydro alcohol gel for hand hygiene.
  • If there are two people inside the vehicle or we must transport a person who is allegedly contaminated. Efforts must be made to increase ventilation and air renewal inside the vehicle. The filters of the air conditioners are NOT designed to retain or filter viruses, its use must be AVOIDED (do not put the air conditioning of the car). It is better to open all or part of the windows (depending on weather conditions).

· At work (non-sanitary).

  • If teleworking is not possible and we have to work with several people, it is interesting to hold a meeting between the workers (safety distance) and the person in charge of the job, as well as follow the specific guidelines for each job, issued in the current situation, by the Ministry of Health (Spain).
  • Design a structured work plan supported by labor institutions if it is possible.
  • Perform work shifts to avoid a crowded work space.
  • Clean the work area and objects or devices in contact with skin and mucosa.
  • Do not share mobile phones or touch tablets (as far as possible) or clean them with 96ºC alcohol in advance, for one minute. Use the hands-free call.
  • Use our own tools or disinfect it before sharing it. Wear gloves for contact.
  • Avoid close contact. Maintain the safety distance of 1.5 to 2 meters. It is the least accomplished!
  • Wear a mask for rhinitis, tearing or sneezing. Mask and gloves if the workplace is made up of several people or devices such as telephones, computer keyboards, etc. are going to be touched.
  • If the job requires direct contact with people or customers. Use amask, gloves and protective barriers (methacrylate) with access and ease to the exchange of information and a transaction.

The Ministry of Health (Spain) has published guidelines called “buenas prácticas en los centros de trabajo”.

Summary and synthesis of the recommendations for reincorporation into workplaces and its relationship with potential exposure to COVID-19 (F.J. Zorrila Tuset. Higher technician in labor risk).

Staff access to the workplace

  • For all those positions where teleworking can be carried out, this option will be used instead of traveling to the workplace. All those meetings that involve the movement of different workers between centers will be held, except for force majeure, by videoconference.
  • It must be organized by the company so that the proper separation of 2 meters is guaranteed between any two people who access it. This entry and exit should be made considering the capacity of the center and the speed of entry of the staff, if necessary staggered shifts will be established.
  • If agglomerations are foreseen, a person in charge of the organization and control of accesses and exits will be appointed, as well as the exterior signage of the appropriate locations in which those who are waiting to access the work center should be located to maintain a distance between them 2 meter security.
  • The day registration system should not require physical contact with the equipment used.
  • In the event that worker has to travel in a means of collective transport, the worker must be informed of the need to maintain the social safety distance recommended by the health authority with the rest of the users and, in the event that said safety cannot be guaranteed. measure, the worker must be equipped with adequate and effective means of individual protection (mask and gloves).
  • The tourist-type work vehicles will only be occupied by the driver. If it is essential for two people to circulate in a vehicle, this will be done by traveling in the vehicle with the passenger in the rear seat opposite the diagonally facing driver and both occupants using disposable nitrile gloves and FFP2 masks. Every time the displacement is completed and prior to being used by another worker, the worker who completes his displacement will be responsible for disinfecting the contact points such as interior and exterior door handles, luggage compartment, handles and buttons, steering wheels, handbrake, gear shifting, seat belts etc.

Hygienic measures for all workers.

  • Hand hygiene and a safety distance (2m) are the main measures for infection prevention and control.
  • Cover your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough and sneeze, and dispose of it in a trash can with a lid and pedal. If scarves are not available, use the inside of the elbow to avoid contaminating your hands. Avoid touching your eyes, nose, or mouth.
  • The use of mask and gloves has been previously discussed.
  • Avoid drinking or eating without previously washing your hands.
  • Contaminated work clothes should be stored separately from street clothes, using separate lockers or bagging work clothes. For clothes, a full cycle wash is recommended at a temperature between 60 and 90º.

General measures for companies

  • Inform all staff about COVID-19, its transmission routes and the individual preventive measures to be taken, emphasizing hygienic measures. So that the staff is familiar with the procedures of action in the event that a worker presents symptoms.
  • The facilities will be ventilated frequently.
  • If it is a matter of cleaning the facilities, with special attention to the surfaces that may be capable of favoring transmission.
  • Hydroalcoholic solution dispensers for hand disinfection will be placed in areas that are in need.
  • The resumption of activity should be guided by the principle of minimizing risk. Therefore, the return to normality of activities that carry a risk of crowding should take place last. In any case, you should avoid carrying out activities that involve crowds of people.
  • Meetings involving a high concentration of workers in confined spaces will be limited to the maximum.
  • Internal training courses that involve the movement of workers between provinces will be postponed, assisting different workers from different work centers.

Third! I have a relative at home who may have a coronavirus infection.

What can I do?

There are some first-hand information tools available to us (Spain) that we should use.

Ministerio de Sanidad. Gobierno de España.

Conselleria de Sanitat Universal y de Salut pública de la Comunitat Valenciana.

Generalitat de Catalunya. Canal salut.

Servicio Gallego de Salud.

Comunidad de Madrid.

Servicio Murciano de Salud.

Gobierno foral de Navarra.

Departamento de Salud. Gobierno vasco. Osakidetza.

If patient presents respiratory symptoms or difficulty breathing. It is important to communicate to 112 emergency phone number or calling to Autonomous Communities pone number.

· Whe must indicate the symptoms, and most importantly, if the person allegedly infected corresponds to red or orange, that is, explain if he presents risk criteria and, ABOVE ALL, IF HE PRESENTS RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS. Difficulty breathing. The staff that treat us and make the first contact by phone, will tell us if they are kept at home or if it is necessary to go to the hospital according to their guidelines.

What phone number should I call? (Spain)

Consult in this list the telephone numbers that the autonomous communities have enabled to report on the coronavirus[covid-19]

La imagen tiene un atributo ALT vacío; su nombre de archivo es andalucia.pngAndalucía900 400 061
955 545 060
La imagen tiene un atributo ALT vacío; su nombre de archivo es aragon.pngAragón976 696 382
La imagen tiene un atributo ALT vacío; su nombre de archivo es asturias.png Asturias900.878.232
984 100 400
112 [marca 1]
La imagen tiene un atributo ALT vacío; su nombre de archivo es cantabria.pngCantabria900 612 112
La imagen tiene un atributo ALT vacío; su nombre de archivo es castilla-la-mancha.pngCastilla La Mancha900 122 112
La imagen tiene un atributo ALT vacío; su nombre de archivo es castilla-y-leon.png Castilla y León900 222 000
La imagen tiene un atributo ALT vacío; su nombre de archivo es cataluna.png Cataluña
La imagen tiene un atributo ALT vacío; su nombre de archivo es ceuta.pngCeuta900 720 692
La imagen tiene un atributo ALT vacío; su nombre de archivo es madrid.pngC. Madrid
900 102 112
La imagen tiene un atributo ALT vacío; su nombre de archivo es valencia.png C. Valenciana900 300 555
La imagen tiene un atributo ALT vacío; su nombre de archivo es extremadura.pngExtremadura
La imagen tiene un atributo ALT vacío; su nombre de archivo es galicia.pngGalicia900 400 116
La imagen tiene un atributo ALT vacío; su nombre de archivo es baleares.png Islas Baleares
La imagen tiene un atributo ALT vacío; su nombre de archivo es canarias.png Canarias900 112 061
La imagen tiene un atributo ALT vacío; su nombre de archivo es la-rioja.pngLa Rioja941 298 333
La imagen tiene un atributo ALT vacío; su nombre de archivo es melilla.png Melilla112
La imagen tiene un atributo ALT vacío; su nombre de archivo es murcia.png Murcia900 121 212
La imagen tiene un atributo ALT vacío; su nombre de archivo es navarra.pngNavarra948 290 290
La imagen tiene un atributo ALT vacío; su nombre de archivo es pais-vasco.pngPaís Vasco900 203 050
Different telephone numbers for attention to coronavirus, according to the autonomous community.

Keeping calm, immediate measures must be taken:

Currently, in Autonomous Communities, there is the possibility that the patient infected with COVID-19 without entry criteria may request to remain isolated in a hotel or in a room other than their home.

There are different scientific publications that recommend that the patient with COVID-19 disease without hospitalization criteria, be isolated and monitored in a place other than their home with the people with whom they live, due to the high risk of contagion that it generates (the virus It can be distributed on all surfaces, habits and environment) and for the probable few and insufficient measures to prevent a contagion (masks, gloves, protective screens, etc.). The confinement of the sick COVID-19 is a different habitat than his home in our country so far, it is voluntary.

In any case, it is necessary to initiate the basic measures until information is obtained on how to act, what the health authorities in the region must provide, once we have contacted them.

  • Instalar a la persona afectada en una habitación de uso exclusivo. Sería muy recomendable que la habitación tuviera una buena ventilación y una ventana con acceso a la calle. Install the patient in a room for exclusive use. It would be highly recommended that the room have good ventilation and a window with access to the street.
  • If possible, reserve a bathroom for the infected person.
  • Keep the bedroom door CLOSED.
  • To minimize contact, the person who tries to communicate with the rest of the family or caregivers through mobile phone or devices adapted for it.
  • Avoid that the supposedly infected person has contact with other people and especially “red” and “orange”.
  • You must limit the circulation of the affected person, through the home to essential situations.
  • If the person requested to sell the room, the use of a mask and gloves is recommended. Previously, the patient had correct hand hygiene with soap and water or a 96ºC alcohol-based disinfectant.

Regarding COVID-19 patient care.

  • Enable a dustbin with automatic lid and bag inside with a hermetic closure for the patient’s waste.
  • Before the caregiver comes into contact with the patient. It is advisable for the patient to rinse the mouth with a disinfecting mouthwash (chlorhexidine 0.12%), a 1% hydrogen peroxide mouthwash, or a 0.2% povidone mouthwash. In order to decrease viral load.
  • The material of corporal hygiene (to dry the body) of the infected person will have a unique use or will be measured in a specific cube. Use a disposable material such as paper.
  • The person caring for the patient, if wearing glasses, after care must disinfect them.
  • If you are not wearing glasses and your eyes are exposed, it would be advisable to protect them (wear sunglasses, swimming goggles, diving goggles, transparent screens) and then clean them. There is a possibility of direct transmission to exposed ocular conjunctivae.
  • Do not use contact lenses.
  • According to the WHO, a patient who has recovered from the disease can still infect. You should remain isolated for 15-20 days after recovery. Record transmission by feces and urine.

Nutrition of the patient with COVID-19, at home.

La Sociedad Española de Endocrino y Nutrición (SEEN) has developed useful nutritional guidelines to prevent malnutrition in patients with COVID-19 infection who are at home.

Here is the proposed link:

In general rules, our patients require an increase in the energy-protein contribution.

  • Increase the number of meals a day (made between 6 and 10), even if they are not large.
  • Chew well and eat slowly, taking as long as necessary.
  • If you have a poor appetite, always try to start with protein food.
  • It is not recommended provide to base his diet on soups or broths, we only provided water, but not nutrients.
  • Remember: maybe patient may have lost taste and smell.
  • Beber abundantes líquidos (agua o infusiones) pero fuera de las comidas (separados de aquellas 30 o 60 minutos). Puede tomar también zumos naturales o batidos caseros entre horas. La hidratación es muy importante. Drink plenty of fluids (water or infusions) but outside meals (separated from liquids 30 or 60 minutes). You can also have natural juices or homemade smoothies between meals. Hydration is essential.

How to clean the contaminated area where COVID-19 patient lives.

  • The environment surrounding the person sick with COVID-19 is an important means of contact. While government agencies tell us that an allegedly affected person should stay at home, these tips are of utmost importance.
  • There are scientific studies that have the presence of coronaviruses in the entire direct environment where the contaminated person is, which SHOULD WEAR A MASK. Coronavirus has been detected even in the bathroom taps used by the sick person with COVID-19.
  • Thorough daily cleaning of all contact surfaces is essential.
  • Patient waste should not be recycled. We will dispose of them in the community garbage can in a closed bag, if possible, hermetically sealed.
  • Since it has detected that the particles of water that carry coronavirus expelled by the patient can be further spread thanks to ventilation mechanisms. The use of air conditioning is not recommended to ventilate the home of the sick person allegedly affected by COVID-19, since cold and dry environments favor its spread. Use opening of windows or windows. DO NOT HEAT the home by activating the air conditioning.
  • Person in charge of cleaning should wear a mask and gloves.
  • For cleaning you should use a solution of bleach water: one part of disinfectant for every 49 of water. Bleach dilution preparation options have been previously specified.
  • The biocidal disinfectant recommended for surfaces is BLEACH, since its EFFECTIVENESS is very great. The lyes sold have a concentration of 0.07%. 20 milliliters of bleach (cup of coffee) per liter of water.
  • Clean all frequent contact surfaces daily: door handles, tables, switches, taps, toilets, telephones, and keyboards. Bleach and Alcohol 96ºC.
  • The crockery of the person sick with COVID-19 should be washed with hot soapy water, preferably in a dishwasher to reach 60º.
  • The patient’s clothing should be washed separately with regular detergent at a temperature between 60º and 90º. Let it dry completely. Hang it with gloves. Do not throw the clothes before being washed.

Fourth! COVIDviendo with the time of waiting and lockdown.

We have been in lockdown for several days due to the state of alarm declared by the Spanish government and it is very important to RESIST without SUFFERING the minimum psychological damage or altering our health.

For this reason, professionals and experts also concerned about the situation in which we are living, have developed some guide councils oriented to the population, in order to take care of nutrition, well-being and psychological health.

Decalogue of healthy eating during lockdown (Dra K. García Malpartida .Endocrinology and Nutrition)

  1. Plan the menus: take advantage of the fact that you now have more time to learn how to prepare a healthy menu, the distraction service and improve your health.
  2. Consume 3-5 servings of fruits and vegetables a day. The best dessert is a fruit.
  3. Cereals are the base of the food pyramid, eat whole grains preferable.
  4. Choose fish or white meat instead of red meat, whose consumption should be limited to once a week.
  5. It is recommended to consume legumes three times a week. Also, it is a good container food.
  6. Use healthy cooking methods like griddle, oven, boiled, steam.
  7. The fat that we will use for cooking will be virgin olive oil.
  8. The drink of choice is water. Avoid commercial juices, soft drinks and alcoholic beverages.
  9. Avoid snacking, as well as pre-cooked dishes, processed foods, sweets and industrial pastries.
  10. Extreme hygiene standards in food standards.
  11. Do physical exercise for 60 minutes a day indoors. There are many exercises that we do not need any specific equipment.
Seeking psychological well-being and health (G. Belda Gil. Sports Coach, psychologist)

As the author states in his own words: “The novel and exceptional situation of staying at home requires physical, mental and emotional attention and care to achieve stability, well-being and psychological health.”

Here I leave his link with the useful guide that we propose.

Informative guide to prevent disease by the COVID-19 virus 13

Fifth! Diagnostic tests.

To understand the meaning of the different types of tests to detect SARS-CoV 2 coronavirus infection, it is necessary to understand the following concepts:

  • Coronavirus structure: the coronavirus is made up of a chain of RNA (genetic material) (a) wrapped in a membrane with proteins (b).
  • Antibodies: when the virus comes into contact with our immune system, antibodies are produced against different proteins of the coronavirus. In this way the immune system fights against the virus.
    • IgM antibodies (approximately after 5 days from the onset of symptoms).
    • IgG antibodies (approximately after 14 days from the onset of symptoms).
  • Having antibodies is not synonymous with not having the virus, nor does it mean that we have developed a protective response against it, since there are no human studies to prove it yet. What it means is that we have been in contact with the virus and our immune system has developed antibodies against it.
Informative guide to prevent disease by the COVID-19 virus 15

Types of diagnostic tests.

Quick diagnosis.

  • Detect coronavirus proteins in the nasopharyngeal exudate (secretions from the depths of the nose).
    • Utility: Detects sick people when they can infect a lot.
    • Advantages: when positive, it indicates the coronavirus presence . They produce results in 15 minutes.
    • Disadvantages: they can be negative if the amount of the virus in the sample is small. The sample (nasopharyngeal exudate) must be collected appropriately (trained personnel are required).
  • Detect antibodies against the coronavirus in blood.
    • Utility: Detects people who have been in contact with the coronavirus.
    • Advantages: results in 20 minutes. Provides information about people who have been in contact with the virus. They are very sensitive from day 11 of symptoms.
    • Disadvantages: they are not valid during the first days of infection, since the immune system takes a few days to generate antibodies. They are not valid to identify people with the ability to infect others.

Slow diagnostic results

  • PCR
    • This test consists of detecting genetic material of the coronavirus (RNA) in the nasopharyngeal exudate, amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Requires 4 hours. It is considered the reference test.
    • When diagnostic is positive, it indicates that the person has the virus, is affected, and can spread it to others. The detection power of the test is greater during the first days of infection and decreases as the days go by. The sample (nasopharyngeal exudate) must be collected appropriately (trained personnel are required).
  • Estudio de anticuerpos mediante pruebas de laboratorio (sangre)
    • Requieren de personal entrenado y equipamiento especializado.
    • Permite conocer la clase y subclase de anticuerpos (IgM,IgG), así como su cuantificación (cantidad en sangre).
  • Antibody study using laboratory tests (blood)
    • They require trained personnel and specialized equipment.
    • It allows to know the class and subclass of antibodies (IgM, IgG), as well as their quantification (amount in blood).

A test can be negative:

  • Inadequate collection of the sample (nasopharyngeal exudate).
  • Specific limitations of detection tests.
  • People in contact with the coronavirus who have not yet developed the infection (that is, the test was done too soon).
  • When the infection is overcome and the patient is not contagious.

“If we can avoid at least one contagion, it will have been worth this effort”

Sources of the document COVIDENDO. Where to get more information.

Ministerio de Sanidad

Guía de autoevaluación

Conselleria de Sanitat Universal i Salut Pública. Comunitat Valenciana.

Instituto valenciano de seguridad y salud en el trabajo INVASSAT.

Herramienta digital. EpidemiXs. Coronavirus.

Pautas de desinfección frente a COVID-19 Comunidad de Madrid

Manual tratamiento COVID-19 H. Universitario ZHEJIANG China 2020ón%20y%20tratamiento%20COVID-19.pdf?dl=0

Manual tratamiento COVID-19 H. Universitario ZHEJIANG China 2020 (traducción al castellano)


Manual de buenas prácticas en la manipulación alimentaria de la OMS:

Guía AENOP Asociación Nacional de Empresarios de Óptica y Profesionales de la visión.

Guía de la OMS para ciudadanos sobre las mascarillas

Guía Osakidetza sobre el uso de guantes

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INFORME TÉCNICO DEL CONSEJO GENERAL DE DENTISTAS DE ESPAÑA MARZO 2020. El nuevo Coronavirus 2019-nCOV y el manejo del paciente dental

Guía del coronavirus en Pubmed (traducción automática al castellano)

Recomendaciones de la OMS Marzo 2020:

Medios de comunicación.é-hacer-si-vivo-con-alguien-con-coronavirus/ar-BB11d25s?ocid=spartanntp&fullscreen=true#image=2


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